- secondary school: a school for students intermediate between elementary school and college; usually grades 9 to 12
- A school attended for US grades 6-8 or 7-8, ages 12-14 or 13-14
- State schools taking pupils aged 8-12 or 9-13.
- A school intermediate between an elementary school and a high school, typically for children in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades
- A person who reads or who is fond of reading
- (readership) the audience reached by written communications (books or magazines or newspapers etc.)
- A person entitled to use a particular library
- (reader) a person who enjoys reading
- A person who reads a particular newspaper, magazine, or text
- (reader) subscriber: someone who contracts to receive and pay for a service or a certain number of issues of a publication
- A play or other activity or presentation considered in terms of its dramatic quality
- a building where theatrical performances or motion-picture shows can be presented; “the house was full”
- The activity or profession of acting in, producing, directing, or writing plays
- dramaturgy: the art of writing and producing plays
- field: a region in which active military operations are in progress; “the army was in the field awaiting action”; “he served in the Vietnam theater for three years”
- A building or outdoor area in which plays and other dramatic performances are given
readers theater middle school – Readers Theatre
The Rodin Studios building, built in 1916-17, was designed by Cass Gilbert specifically for artists. Named for the most innovative living artist of the time, it represents a refinement on the earlier essays in what was a relatively new building type. The two principal elevations of this fourteen-story, reinforced concrete frame building, are sheathed in rough brick, polychromatic — buff to gray, laid in American bond. The elaborate and extensive terra cotta and iron trim is molded and cast in the late Gothic-early Classical motifs which characterize the French Renaissance style, the style of the neighboring Arts Students League as well as a style Gilbert thought appropriate for- artists. The studio windows on the West 57th Street elevation with their cast iron canopies are particularly noteworthy. The brickwork is remarkable also; the broad and narrow bay reveals, linking the building’s base and cap, give this elevation a distinct visual coherence.
Background of the Studio Building Type
The Rodin Studios building (plate 1) is prominent in the development of the studio building type in the early years of this century. The Van Dyck Studios, c.1889, 939 Eighth Avenue, and the studios in Carnegie Hall, 1894, at 881 Seventh Avenue, were mixed use buildings. The first studio buildings designed in this century specifically for artists were built on West 67th Street between Central Park West and Columbus Avenue.
In an effort to provide satisfactory space for artists, Henry Ward Ranger (1858 -1916), the successful landscape painter, rallying a group of artists agreeable to renting space in any building erected for that purpose, approached potential investors to underwrite the financing of such a building. Because so novel a concept found little support, the artists themselves raised the necessary capital.
They elected officers and formed a corporation to which each contributed and, in return, became an owner with the exclusive right to occupy or sublet one of the studio apartments within the building. Maintenance costs were assessed according to the amount of
space each artist owned. Not all the studios were sold; it was decided to hold a few for rental. The income thus produced provided capital to maintain the building.
The earliest West 67th Street studio buildings were designed by Pollard & Steinam (Sturgis & Simonson, 1903; Simonson, Pollard & Steinam, 1303 – 1905; and Pollard & Steinam after 1905). Inevitably any new concept is evaluated against existing standards and the initial building, The Sixty-seventh Street Studios, was found to be in violation of the city’s tenement law. To qualify for reclassification from tenement to Class A Hotel, a public restaurant was introduced on the ground floor, and as a result of building code requirements subsequent studio buildings were constructed on avenues, not streets.
Securing capital to construct the Rodin Studios building was, like its predecessors on West 67th Street and Central Park South, done through a corporation of artists. The president of Rodin Studios, Inc. was Lawton S. Parker (1363 – 1954), the vice-president was Georgia Timken Fry (1361 -1921), and her husband John Hemming Fry (1861 – 1946) was treasurer. All three were painters and all three had travelled from early training in the Midwest to study in Paris: Parker from Michigan to the Academie Julian, Fry from Indiana also to the Academie Julian, and Mrs. Fry from Saint Louis to work with Aimee Morot and Jules Cazin Both Mr. and Mrs. Fry had attended the Saint Louis School of Fine Arts in the early 1880s where Parker was later to teach in 1892. Though not one of them is well-known today, the least obscure of the three in the second decade of this century was Parker.
Lawton S. Parker was identified in the early 1910s with the small group of Americans in Paris calling themselves The Giverny Group. Frederick Carl Frieseke (1874 – 1939) is by far the best known of these Monet devotees. Like Frieseke, Parker had turned from his academic training in the late 1880s (Benjamin Constant, Jean-Paul Laurens, Robert Fleury) and embraced Impressionism. Back in New York" he studied with Harry Siddons Mowbray and William Merritt Chase at the Art Students League in 1897. He exhibited with the Giverny Group at New York’s MacBeth Gallery in 1910 and was accorded a one man show at the Art Institute of Chicago two years later.
Georgia Timken Fry’s strength was landscape in which she synthesized the humble subject matter of Francois Millet with the misty Impressionism of her teacher Cazin; the painting Harvest in Normandy was exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1885.
John Fry appears to have remained true to the academic principles first established by Poussin and as this pedagogy deteriorated, he was given to diatribes against contemporary art — "a bedlam of confusion." Fry had formed a small teaching c
Shelagh Delaney 1939 – 2011
Shelagh Delaney was 18 when she wrote A Taste of Honey, one of the defining plays of the 1950s working-class and feminist cultural movements. The play’s group of dysfunctional characters, utterly alien to the prevailing middle-class "Anyone for tennis?" school of theatre, each explored their chances of attaining a glimpse of happiness. The central character, a young girl named Jo, lives in a decrepit flat in Salford with her mother, who is apt to wander off in pursuit of men with money. Jo becomes pregnant by a black sailor and is cared for by Geoffrey, a young gay friend, until her mother ousts him in what could be a burst of suppressed maternal love or a display of jealous control-freakery.
Delaney, who has died of cancer aged 71, had to endure harsh criticism for her attack on the orthodoxies of the period. Her play was innovative in breaking several taboos discreetly observed by the likes of Noel Coward and Terence Rattigan, in whose dramas working-class characters generally appeared as chirpy subsidiaries and who mostly presented women as either madonnas or sluts. A Taste of Honey showed working-class women from a working-class woman’s point of view, had a gay man as a central and sympathetic figure, and a black character who was neither idealised nor a racial stereotype.
The play opened on 27 May 1958, at the Theatre Royal Stratford East, in London, where its success owed a great deal to Joan Littlewood, who did much to mother both playwright and play. In Salford, where Delaney was born, the council fumed that the portrayal was an insult to the town — but when it became a runaway success, and Delaney a national celebrity, she was asked for her manuscript copy for its library. The feisty Delaney, who disliked being called a "six-footer" (she was 5ft 11in) called them hypocrites, and gave the original script to Littlewood instead.
A Taste of Honey moved to the Wyndham’s theatre, in the West End, in 1959. Delaney received the Charles Henry Foyle award for best new play and an Arts Council England bursary. In the same year, she sold the film rights for ?20,000, then a considerable sum. The film, which she scripted with the director Tony Richardson, and which starred Rita Tushingham as Jo, Dora Bryan as her mother and Murray Melvin as Geoffrey, was released in 1961. It won four Bafta awards, including best British screenplay and best British film. Tushingham won a Bafta for best newcomer and received an award at Cannes, as did Melvin.
Delaney was firmly launched on a playwright’s career, but her subsequent work never achieved an impact as great as her ground-breaking debut. The familiar difficulty of writing a second hit bore down especially hard on her, not least because her first play had succeeded due to its apparent unselfconscious spontaneity. High expectations were disappointed with The Lion in Love, which was produced in 1960 at the Belgrade theatre, in Coventry, and transferred to the Royal Court in London later that year.
Conservative critics such as WA Darlington did not like this portrayal of another northern family: a hard-drinking mother, a husband lacking the courage to leave her and a son choosing to quit home for Australia. However, a new breed of critics represented by Bernard Levin were more encouraging. "The fact is, Miss Delaney is not only a shrewd and penetrating observer; she is a very delicate artist," wrote Levin.
Delaney’s background made A Taste of Honey and The Lion in Love autobiographical, at least in spirit. She had Irish grandparents, one of them an ardent socialist. Her father was a bus inspector and an avid reader and storyteller. He would recount with flair his experiences in the Lancashire Fusiliers in north Africa.
Among the most vivid experiences of Delaney’s childhood were going to the Salford Hippodrome and to the cinema, sometimes three times a week. She attended three primary schools, failed the 11-plus and attended secondary school in Broughton, Lancashire, where the headteacher encouraged her to watch the school production of Othello. She was 12 and had already realised that she could write better than the other pupils in the class. Her interest in drama waxed as her interest in school work waned. She made three half-hearted attempts to transfer to the local grammar school but got there only at the age of 15. She left at 17 and had little interest in studying to be a teacher, the most realistic career path on offer. Instead, she took dead-end jobs as a clerk in a milk depot, a shop assistant, an usherette at Manchester opera house and a worker in the research photography department of the electrical engineering company Metropolitan-Vickers.
A Taste of Honey began as a novel but Delaney, as she later admitted, was soon too busy going out dancing and socialising to produce an 80,000-word book. A play seemed better attuned to her impulsive talent, and when she saw Rattig
readers theater middle school
This reader’s theatre compilation of contemporary, humorous plays that deal with the problems middle-school students face is similar to the author’s previous TIP title, Just Deal With It! The plays in All Year Long! are themed to fit special times of year such as the beginning of school, holidays, and spring vacation and address problems experienced by this age group—peer pressure, fear of failure, jealousy, and more. Each reproducible play offers at least eight roles (boys and girls). Each includes a plot summary, prop list, and costume and presentation ideas, as well as ideas for further student reading on the topic or theme. This engaging collection (which can be adapted to small group or whole class presentations) will be useful to teachers and librarians who are looking for fun things to do with kids to promote reading fluency and discussion. Grade 6-8.